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一号文件聚焦农业供给侧

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年06月26日 02:47:12
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(  导)(读)(:2016年)(中)(央)(一)(号)(文)(件)(将)(再)(次)(聚)(焦)(“三)(农)(”,相)(关)(内)(容)(开)(始)(浮)(出)(水)(面)(。
  据)(接)(近)(农)(业)(部)(的)(专)(家)(介)(绍)(,2016年)(中)(央)(一)(号)(文)(件)(的)(拟)(定)(标)(题)(为)(《中)(共)(中)(央)(、国)(务)(院)(关)(于)(落)(实)(发)(展)(新)(理)(念)(加)(快)(农)(业)(现)(代)(化)(实)(现)(全)(面)(小)(康)(目)(标)(的)(若)(干)(意)(见)(》(下)(称)(《意)(见)(》),下)(一)(步)(在)(经)(过)(修)(改)(、完)(善)(之)(后)(,按)(照)(惯)(例)(,预)(计)(将)(在)(1月)(底)(或)(2月)(初)(对)(外)(颁)(布)(。
  文)(/经)(济)(观)(察)(网)(
  2016年)(中)(央)(一)(号)(文)(件)(将)(再)(次)(聚)(焦)(“三)(农)(”,相)(关)(内)(容)(开)(始)(浮)(出)(水)(面)(。
  据)(接)(近)(农)(业)(部)(的)(专)(家)(介)(绍)(,2016年)(中)(央)(一)(号)(文)(件)(的)(拟)(定)(标)(题)(为)(《中)(共)(中)(央)(、国)(务)(院)(关)(于)(落)(实)(发)(展)(新)(理)(念)(加)(快)(农)(业)(现)(代)(化)(实)(现)(全)(面)(小)(康)(目)(标)(的)(若)(干)(意)(见)(》(下)(称)(《意)(见)(》),下)(一)(步)(在)(经)(过)(修)(改)(、完)(善)(之)(后)(,按)(照)(惯)(例)(,预)(计)(将)(在)(1月)(底)(或)(2月)(初)(对)(外)(颁)(布)(。
  与)(中)(央)(提)(出)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(的)(目)(标)(相)(一)(致)(,《意)(见)(》强)(调)(,要)(着)(力)(加)(强)(农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(,基)(本)(要)(求)(是)(,提)(高)(粮)(食)(等)(农)(产)(品)(的)(有)(效)(供)(给)(。所)(谓)(“有)(效)(供)(给)(”,就)(是)(在)(农)(产)(品)(的)(供)(给)(数)(量)(充)(足)(、品)(种)(和)(质)(量)(上)(,要)(与)(社)(会)(的)(总)(体)(需)(求)(、消)(费)(者)(的)(需)(求)(相)(契)(合)(。通)(俗)(讲)(,农)(产)(品)(生)(产)(并)(不)(是)(越)(多)(越)(好)(,比)(如)(,像)(今)(年)(国)(内)(玉)(米)(市)(场)(凸)(显)(的)(供)(过)(于)(求)(,国)(家)(库)(存)(严)(重)(过)(剩)(,农)(户)(生)(产)(的)(玉)(米)(卖)(不)(出)(去)(,对)(国)(家)(、对)(农)(民)(来)(说)(,都)(是)(一)(种)(浪)(费)(、一)(种)(损)(失)(。
  “有)(效)(供)(给)(”还)(包)(括)(降)(低)(农)(业)(生)(产)(成)(本)(,提)(高)(农)(业)(效)(益)(和)(竞)(争)(力)(。“降)(低)(”主)(要)(是)(指)(控)(制)(农)(业)(用)(水)(总)(量)(,减)(少)(化)(肥)(、农)(药)(的)(使)(用)(量)(,“提)(高)(”则)(是)(指)(提)(高)(农)(业)(的)(科)(技)(含)(量)(、提)(高)(农)(民)(的)(种)(粮)(收)(入)(、种)(地)(收)(入)(水)(平)(。
  前)(述)(接)(近)(农)(业)(部)(的)(专)(家)(对)(农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(的)(总)(结)(只)(有)(9个)(字)(——去)(库)(存)(、降)(成)(本)(、补)(短)(板)(。在)(“补)(短)(板)(”方)(面)(,很)(重)(要)(的)(一)(项)(就)(是)(如)(何)(尽)(快)(让)(农)(村)(发)(展)(起)(来)(,让)(农)(民)(富)(起)(来)(,这)(样)(“十)(三)(五)(”全)(面)(建)(成)(小)(康)(社)(会)(的)(目)(标)(才)(不)(会)(落)(空)(。
  农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(
  去)(年)(12月)(25日)(结)(束)(的)(中)(央)(农)(村)(工)(作)(会)(议)(有)(一)(个)(重)(要)(的)(环)(节)(,就)(是)(讨)(论)(上)(述)(《意)(见)(》的)(讨)(论)(稿)(。
  据)(前)(述)(接)(近)(农)(业)(部)(的)(专)(家)(介)(绍)(,在)(讨)(论)(稿)(中)(,最)(为)(受)(人)(关)(注)(的)(是)(提)(出)(“要)(着)(力)(加)(强)(农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(”,这)(与)(之)(前)(中)(央)(高)(层)(强)(调)(的)(加)(强)(供)(给)(侧)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(一)(脉)(相)(承)(。
  国)(家)(信)(息)(中)(心)(经)(济)(预)(测)(部)(宏)(观)(经)(济)(研)(究)(室)(主)(任)(牛)(犁)(、中)(国)(社)(会)(科)(学)(院)(农)(村)(发)(展)(研)(究)(所)(研)(究)(员)(李)(国)(祥)(、中)(国)(人)(民)(大)(学)(农)(业)(与)(农)(村)(发)(展)(学)(院)(副)(院)(长)(郑)(风)(田)(等)(专)(家)(对)(农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(有)(进)(一)(步)(的)(分)(析)(。多)(位)(“三)(农)(”专)(家)(都)(一)(致)(认)(为)(,基)(本)(上)(,下)(一)(步)(推)(进)(的)(农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(,就)(是)(要)(“去)(库)(存)(、降)(成)(本)(、补)(短)(板)(”。
  牛)(犁)(的)(分)(析)(是)(,在)(供)(给)(层)(面)(,农)(业)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(的)(基)(本)(底)(线)(就)(是)(保)(障)(国)(家)(粮)(食)(安)(全)(。从)(数)(量)(上)(说)(,中)(国)(已)(经)(实)(现)(了)(“谷)(物)(基)(本)(自)(给)(、口)(粮)(绝)(对)(安)(全)(”;从)(质)(量)(上)(看)(,中)(国)(高)(端)(农)(产)(品)(的)(丰)(富)(程)(度)(显)(然)(还)(不)(能)(满)(足)(需)(求)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,农)(药)(残)(留)(、水)(源)(污)(染)(、土)(壤)(重)(金)(属)(超)(标)(等)(环)(境)(问)(题)(、食)(品)(安)(全)(问)(题)(,未)(来)(政)(府)(加)(大)(“三)(农)(”领)(域)(的)(改)(革)(力)(度)(,在)(提)(高)(优)(质)(农)(产)(品)(供)(给)(上)(做)(文)(章)(,最)(终)(让)(农)(业)(变)(成)(一)(个)(真)(正)(赚)(钱)(的)(行)(业)(。
  李)(国)(祥)(、郑)(风)(田)(都)(提)(到)(,今)(年)(河)(南)(、东)(北)(等)(粮)(食)(主)(产)(区)(出)(现)(的)(卖)(粮)(难)(问)(题)(,建)(议)(要)(尽)(快)(完)(善)(粮)(食)(等)(重)(要)(农)(产)(品)(价)(格)(形)(成)(机)(制)(和)(收)(储)(政)(策)(。李)(国)(祥)(认)(为)(,目)(前)(中)(国)(农)(产)(品)(缺)(乏)(价)(格)(竞)(争)(力)(,主)(要)(是)(农)(业)(生)(产)(成)(本)(过)(高)(,农)(业)(比)(较)(效)(益)(偏)(低)(,要)(想)(解)(决)(这)(些)(问)(题)(,必)(须)(引)(导)(土)(地)(股)(份)(合)(作)(制)(,让)(农)(民)(以)(入)(股)(形)(式)(参)(与)(分)(红)(,再)(有)(,就)(是)(促)(进)(农)(业)(机)(械)(化)(,转)(变)(农)(业)(发)(展)(方)(式)(,提)(高)(农)(药)(、化)(肥)(的)(利)(用)(效)(率)(,真)(正)(降)(低)(农)(业)(的)(生)(产)(成)(本)(。
  前)(述)(接)(近)(农)(业)(部)(的)(专)(家)(表)(示)(,现)(在)(相)(关)(部)(门)(对)(“去)(库)(存)(、降)(成)(本)(、补)(短)(板)(”三)(方)(面)(的)(改)(革)(思)(路)(已)(经)(基)(本)(清)(晰)(,简)(单)(来)(说)(,去)(库)(存)(,就)(是)(要)(加)(快)(消)(化)(过)(大)(的)(农)(产)(品)(国)(库)(存)(量)(,加)(快)(粮)(食)(加)(工)(转)(化)(;降)(成)(本)(,是)(通)(过)(发)(展)(适)(度)(规)(模)(经)(营)(、减)(少)(化)(肥)(农)(药)(不)(合)(理)(使)(用)(、开)(展)(社)(会)(化)(服)(务)(等)(,降)(低)(生)(产)(成)(本)(,提)(高)(农)(业)(效)(益)(和)(竞)(争)(力)(;补)(短)(板)(,是)(加)(强)(农)(业)(基)(础)(设)(施)(等)(农)(业)(供)(给)(的)(薄)(弱)(环)(节)(,增)(加)(市)(场)(紧)(缺)(农)(产)(品)(的)(生)(产)(。
  而)(据)(农)(业)(部)(种)(植)(业)(司)(副)(司)(长)(潘)(文)(博)(去)(年)(11月)(所)(说)(,目)(前)(,推)(进)(新)(一)(轮)(农)(业)(调)(整)(的)(总)(体)(思)(路)(已)(经)(明)(晰)(,下)(一)(步)(,农)(业)(部)(将)(按)(照)(新)(形)(势)(下)(国)(家)(粮)(食)(安)(全)(战)(略)(和)(“藏)(粮)(于)(地)(”、“藏)(粮)(于)(技)(”的)(战)(略)(,坚)(持)(“以)(市)(场)(为)(导)(向)(,科)(技)(为)(引)(领)(,生)(态)(保)(护)(优)(先)(”,提)(升)(产)(能)(,形)(成)(粮)(经)(饲)(统)(筹)(、农)(林)(牧)(渔)(结)(合)(、种)(养)(加)(一)(体)(、一)(二)(三)(产)(业)(融)(合)(的)(农)(业)(发)(展)(格)(局)(。
  对)(于)(粮)(棉)(油)(等)(主)(要)(农)(产)(品)(的)(供)(给)(,潘)(文)(博)(的)(说)(法)(是)(,稻)(小)(麦)(两)(大)(口)(粮)(的)(自)(给)(率)(希)(望)(维)(持)(在)(100%,谷)(物)(自)(给)(率)(是)(在)(95%以)(上)(,棉)(、油)(、糖)(,棉)(花)(的)(自)(给)(率)(基)(本)(上)(要)(满)(足)(国)(内)(的)(消)(费)(。对)(食)(用)(油)(具)(体)(的)(要)(求)(是)(,自)(给)(率)(要)(稳)(定)(在)(30%以)(上)(。
  前)(述)(接)(近)(农)(业)(部)(的)(专)(家)(补)(充)(表)(示)(,在)(下)(一)(步)(推)(进)(的)(农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(中)(,中)(央)(还)(首)(次)(提)(出)(要)(树)(立)(大)(农)(业)(、大)(食)(物)(观)(念)(,对)(于)(粮)(食)(生)(产)(、“粮)(食)(安)(全)(”不)(再)(是)(片)(面)(的)(、一)(味)(的)(强)(调)(产)(量)(、数)(量)(,而)(是)(就)(是)(要)(从)(过)(去)(的)(产)(量)(增)(长)(、数)(量)(增)(长)(为)(主)(转)(到)(数)(量)(、质)(量)(、效)(益)(并)(重)(,大)(大)(拓)(展)(了)(“粮)(食)(安)(全)(”的)(内)(涵)(,这)(个)(转)(变)(也)(可)(以)(说)(是)(带)(有)(革)(命)(性)(的)(。
  全)(面)(小)(康)(
  2016是)(“十)(三)(五)(”开)(局)(之)(年)(,《意)(见)(》在)(强)(调)(农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(的)(同)(时)(,还)(提)(出)(要)(多)(渠)(道)(增)(加)(农)(民)(收)(入)(,以)(此)(来)(推)(动)(实)(现)(“十)(三)(五)(”全)(面)(建)(成)(小)(康)(社)(会)(的)(目)(标)(。
  按)(照)(国)(家)(统)(计)(局)(公)(布)(的)(数)(据)(,现)(在)(中)(国)(农)(民)(收)(入)(已)(经)(保)(持)(了)(连)(续)(6年)(的)(增)(长)(,而)(且)(还)(高)(于)(城)(镇)(居)(民)(收)(入)(的)(增)(幅)(,也)(就)(是)(说)(城)(乡)(居)(民)(收)(入)(的)(差)(距)(正)(在)(在)(逐)(步)(缩)(小)(,但)(即)(便)(是)(在)(这)(样)(的)(数)(据)(支)(撑)(下)(,仍)(然)(有)(一)(些)(关)(注)(“三)(农)(”的)(专)(家)(,认)(为)(农)(民)(的)(收)(入)(提)(高)(速)(度)(太)(慢)(,国)(家)(对)(农)(业)(的)(补)(贴)(力)(度)(太)(小)(,对)(农)(民)(工)(、对)(农)(村)(老)(人)(的)(社)(保)(支)(持)(力)(度)(还)(太)(小)(。
  前)(不)(久)(,中)(国)(经)(济)(体)(制)(改)(革)(研)(究)(会)(副)(会)(长)(宋)(晓)(梧)(曾)(公)(开)(表)(示)(,这)(几)(年)(城)(乡)(居)(民)(收)(入)(差)(距)(虽)(然)(略)(有)(缩)(小)(,但)(并)(不)(是)(农)(民)(的)(务)(农)(收)(入)(真)(正)(增)(加)(了)(,而)(是)(农)(民)(在)(城)(市)(的)(打)(工)(收)(入)(占)(到)(整)(个)(收)(入)(的)(40%。从)(目)(前)(来)(看)(,国)(际)(上)(还)(“没)(有)(一)(个)(国)(家)(会)(用)(第)(二)(产)(业)(、第)(三)(产)(业)(企)(业)(发)(出)(来)(的)(钱)(算)(到)(农)(民)(收)(入)(的)(头)(上)(,只)(有)(在)(中)(国)(城)(乡)(分)(割)(的)(特)(殊)(背)(景)(算)(成)(农)(民)(收)(入)(”。
  宋)(晓)(梧)(还)(表)(示)(,现)(在)(社)(保)(体)(制)(覆)(盖)(最)(差)(的)(就)(是)(农)(民)(工)(。现)(在)(有)(的)(专)(家)(还)(建)(议)(,为)(农)(民)(工)(建)(立)(单)(独)(的)(社)(保)(制)(度)(。他)(认)(为)(,解)(决)(农)(民)(工)(社)(保)(覆)(盖)(差)(的)(问)(题)(,不)(是)(单)(独)(建)(立)(社)(保)(制)(度)(,而)(是)(让)(他)(们)(尽)(快)(市)(民)(化)(,融)(入)(城)(市)(,能)(享)(受)(和)(城)(镇)(职)(工)(一)(样)(的)(社)(保)(工)(资)(待)(遇)(。在)(城)(市)(基)(本)(公)(共)(服)(务)(均)(等)(化)(方)(面)(,农)(民)(工)(及)(子)(女)(也)(被)(排)(斥)(在)(外)(,这)(方)(面)(也)(需)(要)(引)(起)(有)(关)(部)(门)(的)(重)(视)(,并)(尽)(快)(予)(以)(解)(决)(。
  中)(国)(经)(济)(体)(制)(改)(革)(研)(究)(会)(会)(长)(高)(尚)(全)(也)(关)(注)(农)(民)(收)(入)(问)(题)(。在)(2015年)(11月)(28-29日)(召)(开)(的)(中)(国)(改)(革)(年)(会)(上)(,他)(表)(示)(,如)(果)(农)(村)(发)(展)(不)(起)(来)(,农)(民)(富)(不)(起)(来)(,“十)(三)(五)(”全)(面)(建)(成)(小)(康)(社)(会)(的)(奋)(斗)(目)(标)(就)(会)(落)(空)(。
  高)(尚)(全)(认)(为)(,现)(在)(农)(村)(发)(展)(长)(期)(滞)(后)(的)(重)(要)(原)(因)(,是)(农)(民)(的)(承)(包)(地)(、宅)(基)(地)(、集)(体)(经)(营)(性)(用)(地)(难)(以)(变)(成)(资)(本)(,农)(民)(难)(以)(获)(得)(财)(产)(性)(收)(入)(,应)(该)(通)(过)(土)(地)(制)(度)(等)(改)(革)(,应)(该)(“以)(合)(法)(的)(方)(式)(,让)(农)(民)(的)(袋)(子)(鼓)(起)(来)(,农)(民)(才)(能)(过)(上)(小)(康)(生)(活)(。”
  对)(于)(目)(前)(仍)(然)(存)(在)(的)(多)(方)(面)(影)(响)(农)(民)(提)(高)(收)(入)(的)(制)(度)(性)(障)(碍)(,前)(述)(接)(近)(农)(业)(部)(的)(专)(家)(分)(析)(表)(示)(,本)(次)(中)(央)(农)(村)(工)(作)(会)(议)(提)(到)(了)(要)(“多)(渠)(道)(增)(加)(农)(民)(收)(入)(”,《意)(见)(》在)(这)(方)(面)(也)(有)(进)(一)(步)(的)(安)(排)(部)(署)(。近)(年)(来)(,中)(央)(一)(直)(鼓)(励)(社)(会)(资)(本)(投)(资)(农)(业)(产)(业)(,希)(望)(借)(此)(加)(快)(农)(业)(规)(模)(经)(营)(的)(发)(展)(、推)(动)(农)(业)(产)(业)(化)(,从)(而)(也)(为)(提)(高)(农)(民)(种)(粮)(、种)(地)(收)(入)(多)(提)(供)(一)(些)(保)(障)(。
  下)(一)(步)(,有)(关)(方)(面)(将)(继)(续)(推)(动)(社)(会)(资)(本)(参)(与)(农)(业)(产)(业)(化)(经)(营)(,同)(时)(,还)(会)(逐)(步)(将)(社)(会)(资)(本)(引)(入)(农)(村)(网)(络)(基)(础)(建)(设)(,推)(动)(农)(村)(电)(商)(的)(发)(展)(,预)(计)(通)(过)(这)(些)(手)(段)(,将)(会)(大)(大)(有)(效)(地)(降)(低)(农)(业)(生)(产)(的)(成)(本)(,以)(此)(为)(提)(高)(农)(民)(收)(入)(,提)(供)(更)(多)(的)(、更)(有)(效)(的)(保)(障)(。
  (来)(源)(于)(微)(信)(公)(众)(号)(“深)(大)(投)(行)(业)(务)(交)(流)(”)
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